longevity and the battery management system (2023)

An evolution is taking place on highways crisscrossing the globe – a transformation from centuries-old fossil fuel-powered cars to clean, efficient electric vehicles (EVs). With the EV market projected to grow 10x over the next decade, there is a growing need to monitor, manage and maintain high-capacity batteries to power millions of electric vehicles.

Today's battery market continues to be determined not only by cost, but also by the demand for vehicles with greater range, shorter charging times and functional safety. These high demands on battery management systems require compliance with the highest standards with the tightest tolerances.

With the battery accounting for up to 40% of the retail price of an EV, battery performance and life become important factors in the success of an EV brand. As a leading provider of battery management systems (BMS), Analog Devices, Inc. (ADI) works with customers to find the best processes critical to monitoring and managing electric vehicle batteries to ensure their safety, productivity and longevity.



Through ADI's acquisition of Linear Technology, ADI's portfolio includes the first integrated high voltage battery monitor, developed in 2008. Since then, our focus has been on providing the best performing solution. Today we are working on our 5th generation products.


The growth of the EV market is increasing demands on battery manufacturers, supply chains and automotive brands to provide high quality and reliable battery technology to keep up with demand.


Battery monitoring and management.


OEMs have a strong focus on safety, cost, efficiency and battery life.

(Video) How does a BMS (Battery Management System) work? | Passive & Active cell balancing Explained


The BMS monitors, controls and reliably distributes the charging and discharging of the entire battery system during its lifetime. Accurate monitoring of current and voltage profiles is critical, as overcharging a battery can cause a fire or explosion, and undercharging (or completely discharging) renders the battery unusable. The quality of the battery management system directly affects the kilometers per charge an electric vehicle can deliver, maximizing overall battery life and thereby reducing operating costs.

In this situation, the price point becomes irrelevant and long-term value becomes the primary metric. That's because you're trying to get better performance over the life of your battery. “When it comes to accuracy and precision over the life of the vehicle, there are no compromises,” said Mike Kultgen, general manager of BMS, ADI. "The better the accuracy, the better you can understand the condition of the battery cell, the more capacity you can extract from it, the more reliably the battery will work." Considering the investment for the battery, the value of BMS performance is clear and will become more obvious when automotive designers consider warranty and lifetime package costs.1.


longevity and the battery management system (1)

Batteries put pressure on design teams as they must address a number of priorities including price, reliability and safety. You can't risk anything when dealing with EV systems that supply between 48 and 800 volts.

A battery system that must provide over a hundred kilowatts of power at the push of a button must operate on hundreds of volts to be efficient. However, lithium battery cells only supply a few volts. To get enough power, many battery cells are connected in series to form a long stack. A typical electric vehicle can use 100 individual battery cells, providing 350 volts at the top of the cell. And that brings with it some challenges.

If one cell in your long pile of battery cells dies, you've effectively lost all of them. So you need to monitor and manageall of them- Loading, unloading - every day for the life of the vehicle. Lithium battery cells cannot be operated over the full range of their charge and discharge range. They must be kept within a very specific range, for example 15% to 85%, otherwise the cells will be weakened.


ADI's BMS provides accurate cell measurements from battery manufacture to battery decommissioning. The electronics are connected directly to each cell in the stack and report voltage and temperature coordinated with the cell current. The system determines the state of charge and the state of health. The current and temperature of each cell must be monitored by a complex algorithm in the central processor. ADI incorporates a robust communication interface while allowing a modular design (architecture). It is fully extensible to our diverse customer base.

(Video) Battery Management System for Electric Vehicles | BMS

longevity and the battery management system (2)

“The BMS constantly monitors the cells and provides reliable measurement accuracy over time, temperature and operating conditions. It knows what is happening at every moment and trusts 100% the information it gets from the ADI chips.”

Mike Kultgen

General Manager, Battery Management Systems | Analog Devices


The benefits of working closely with ADI's battery management systems experts go beyond access to a broad portfolio of components and products. They give OEMs access to our system-level expertise, deep domain knowledge, and years of hands-on BMS design experience. OEMs can achieve high efficiency miles per charge, extend battery life, ensure safety and build brand trust.

Patrick Morgan, Vice President Automotive at Analog Devices, said: “Customers tell us they need confidence when using our products. That's why we hold a technical meeting at your site or at our factory and invite our top designers and application engineers to meet your team. We spend a day or two going over our roadmap and the problems they need to solve, and then we discuss how we would approach their specific issue. We build trust by focusing on collaboration.”


"A customer in Asia asked us to develop a new battery management system based on an old one," said Cuyler Latorraca, application manager at ADI. “We looked at their assumptions, system requirements and operating environment. We determined that your grounding scheme introduced systematic measurement error, a common problem in the industry, and we took steps to eliminate this error.”


longevity and the battery management system (3)

Founded less than 10 years ago by a 21-year-old inventor in a garage in Croatia, Rimac Automobili has grown into a technology powerhouse with 600 employees. Today, Rimac designs, develops and manufactures high-performance electric hypercars and electrification systems for global automotive companies.

ADI's precision BMS integrated circuits (ICs) enable Rimac electric vehicles to extract the maximum power and capacity from their batteries, providing highly accurate battery cell measurements. Sophisticated diagnostics allow the system to monitor cell characteristics, voltage and temperature, and determine the state of charge at any point in time. "Precision directly translates to maximizing battery capacity and range with fast charge times," said Patrick Morgan.

“Rimac is a technological powerhouse in the field of high-performance electric vehicles. We design and manufacture key electrification systems for many global automotive companies and are raising the bar for high-performance electric vehicles with our own hypercars,” said Mate Rimac, CEO of Rimac. “Our application of battery management systems is among the most demanding in the world, requiring extreme precision, large current and voltage draws in very short periods of time, and fast dynamic adjustments in the battery management control system. We chose to adopt Analog Devices' battery management IC portfolio for our entire product line. We evaluated these ICs in the market and selected the analog devices for their superior precision measurement accuracy and product robustness over the life of the vehicle.”

(Video) Battery Management Systems and Their Role in Safety and Reliability


"High voltage battery system technology is constantly changing," said Greg Zimmer, BMS marketing manager, ADI. “We see a lot of pressure to increase capacity and longevity. How does the industry intend to achieve this? How can we get more battery power while making a battery last 10 years, increasing its range, supporting faster charging, and developing centralized and modular designs?

ADI is not only focused on our customers' problems today, but on a continuous improvement process with an eye on tomorrow. We will continue to lead the industry with solutions that maximize range per charge, reduce overall weight and lower overall battery system costs. Our extensive system-level experience and large family of components (3 to 18 cells with an IC supporting more cell count options than any competitor) sets us apart from the competition.


Working in partnership with OEMs, ADI's architectural innovations will improve how power density, accuracy and weight issues are resolved and communicated in the future. We continue to innovate and our 5th generation BMS is on track for next year's vehicle production.

BMS: A Vantagem ADI

ADI has taken the lead in battery management systems, meeting the growing demand for safe, high quality, high performance batteries for the electric vehicle market. Customers can now leverage a partner with deep system-level expertise and the broadest range of components.

(Video) The unsung hero of the battery revolution: battery management systems
  • Industry-leading superior accuracy and stability
  • Full ASIL D support with a single component and streamlined design
  • High-speed, EMI-resistant, electrically isolated, cost-effective daisy chain with redundancy for fault conditions
  • A large base of installed products with four generations of products in service
  • A family of BMS products to provide system-level solutions


A common misconception among average consumers is that electric vehicles are not high-performance vehicles and will never be able to match the performance of internal combustion engines. Together, ADI and RIMAC have disproved this fallacy and are now helping to redefine what high-performance electric vehicles can do. Harnessing ADI's high-performance BMS, the high-performance RIMAC C Two hypercar boasts an impressive power output of 1,914 horsepower, acceleration from 0 to 60 mph in 1.85 seconds and a top speed of 258 mph.

ADI and RIMAC not only set a precedent for the high-performance community, but also helped increase consumer enthusiasm and user adoption rates for high-performance EVs and EVs in general.

According to the World Health Organization, air pollution is a silent killer, responsible for 4.2 million deaths each year, reducing life expectancy by 1.8 years. Through our collaborations with RIMAC and other EV suppliers, ADI not only breaks down barriers, but also enables a cleaner, more sustainable environment by reducing carbon emissions.

As part of our ongoing efforts to create a greener environment and improve the health of people around the world, Analog Devices BMS products prevented 60 million tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere in 2019 and are reducing CO2 emissions from vehicles that continue to reduce by 30%. Year by year. To put this in perspective, 60 million tons of CO2 is equivalent to approximately 70 million hectares of primary forest.

1With the expected huge production of batteries comes a huge supply of used batteries to be recycled. Worn out doesn't mean worn out if the battery cells have been well managed over their lifetime. The potential reuse for energy storage beyond the vehicle, also known as Second Life, needs to be considered as part of the total cost of ownership.

(Video) Disconnect Switches for Lithium Ion Battery Packs

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Vehicle electrification: longer range, faster charging, more efficient


Do I need a battery management system? ›

Why is a BMS important? Not only is a BMS important in indicating the health of a battery, but it also functions to protect the battery while in operation. Each battery cell and chemistry has voltage, temperature, and current range within which it can safely operate.

What is main purpose of battery management system? ›

A BMS monitors the temperatures across the pack, and open and closes various valves to maintain the temperature of the overall battery within a narrow temperature range to ensure optimal battery performance.

What is the biggest challenge in battery management system? ›

There are two main design challenges to create the ideal BMS solution: Designing the internal battery pack topology to allow for monitoring of each cell. Including a mechanism for the BMS to balance the cells.

What happens if a BMS fails? ›

If the BMS is not detected, this may lead to electric shock. Therefore, BMS systems have the highest requirements for monitoring sensors. Avoiding the failure of the monitoring system can greatly improve the safety of the power battery.

Will my battery work without the BMS? ›

Well, actually, no – lithium batteries don't need a battery management system (BMS) to operate. You can connect a few lithium battery cells in series to make a battery pack without any sort of lithium battery management system, and it will be able to power various loads and be charged just fine.

How much does a battery management system cost? ›

A BMS for this application is typically in the $250 to $500 range.

Do I need to program my car after changing the battery? ›

Under normal circumstances, you don't need to do anything else other than keep driving the car after resetting the computer. The ECU will eventually relearn its ideal settings and reprogram itself with use.

What happens if you don't secure your car battery? ›

An unsecured battery can move around inside a vehicle and if the positive and negative terminals come in contact with a piece of exposed metal, they can create a very dangerous situation that can include a very real fire hazard.

What does a battery management system consist of? ›

BMS comprises the battery control unit (BCU), subcontrollers or cell monitoring units (CMU), an intelligent electric meter (IEM), and a data logger. A controller area network (CAN) bus is used as an internal communication unit.

What are the main components of BMS system? ›

What is a Building Management System? such as air conditioning, ventilation, lighting and hydraulics. More specifically they link the functionality of individual pieces of building equipment so that they operate as one complete integrated system. control, CCTV, fire, Lifts and other life and safety systems.

What are the benefits of battery management system? ›

The advantages of an Active Battery Management System: It monitors the aging and charging status as well as the depth of discharge of the battery modules. It controls the charging cycles smartly and optimized in regard to speed, thermal management or overcharging.

What are the three main causes of battery failure? ›

What causes battery failure?
  • The battery is not being used in the application for which it was designed.
  • The battery is not sized properly for the application.
  • The vehicle has excessive electrical accessories.
  • The battery is not properly fitted into the vehicle.
  • The battery cables are not clean.

What are the challenges for battery management system? ›

2. Battery Management System: Goals and Challenges In this section, some of the challenges faced in designing battery BMS are briefly described.
  • Initial SOC error. ...
  • Current measurement error. ...
  • Current integration error. ...
  • Uncertainty in the knowledge of battery capacity [14]. ...
  • Timing oscillator error.

How often should a BMS be serviced? ›

clean and free from pitting (every 12 months). 12 months). ingress of dirt or moisture is minimised (every 12 months). D Ensure status indicators on all panels are functional (every 12 months).

Will BMS stop charging? ›

A BMS will read data from multiple sensors, analyze it, and decide on what to do next. Thus, if the current, voltage or SOC is over the limit, the BMS can disconnect the circuit using a breaker and stop charging the battery.

How long does it take to balance BMS? ›

Gross Balancing

It takes almost one week for a BMS with a 1A balancing current to balance a 100 Ah pack that has some cells fully charged, and some cells totally empty. A balanced current of 10 mA cannot balance a 1000 Ah pack within the lifetime of its owner.

How do you wake up a BMS battery? ›

The BMS wake-up circuit is required to restart the BMS when detecting the charger in charging the battery pack. The regular method is spanning the sampling circuit between the battery anode P+ and cathode P−, or connecting a detection circuit at both ends of the charging MOSFET to wake up the BMS.

Which type of battery does not require a BMS? ›

Do I Really Need a BMS for NiMH Battery Pack? No, you do not. However, NiMH battery packs are amongst the hardest batteries to charge accurately and because the BMS solutions are very cost effective we recommend having one in your design.

How many amps should a BMS be? ›

The most reliable BMS systems will be rated at 100 amps, despite the battery rating being declared at for instance 50AH or 80 AH or 100AH.

Are maintenance free batteries worth it? ›

It Lasts Longer

These are completely sealed, except for a tiny hole used as a vent. So again, the water loss will be negligible. As a result, maintenance-free batteries will last for much longer than traditional car batteries. Its slow self-discharge rate makes it so you won't have to replace your car battery as often.

What battery management system does Tesla use? ›

Powerwall gives you the ability to store energy for later use and works with solar to provide key security and financial benefits. Each Powerwall system is equipped with energy monitoring, metering and smart controls for owner customization using the Tesla app.

Is it cheaper to replace your own car battery? ›

Cheaper: The main reason to replace the battery yourself is to save money on labor. Doing the work yourself can be a great deal cheaper than what a garage or service center would charge to simple swap out a part.

How many miles do you have to drive to reset the battery? ›

So why is the light still on? Here's something you probably don't know: after clearing the car's computer you will need to drive for about 50 to 100 miles.

How long should you drive a car after putting in a new battery? ›

It's best to drive the car around or let it idle for at least 30 minutes after you jump-start it. Ideally, you should drive the car around for 30 minutes to allow the alternator to charge the battery to a good level.

How long should I wait to start car after replacing battery? ›

After replacing a car battery, you should run the car for about 30 minutes to allow the alternator to fully charge the battery. Usually, a battery replacement also causes the vehicle's computer and radio to reset.

Does idling a car charge the battery? ›

Idling: it's far from ideal.

While idling older vehicles for 15-20 minutes may give them enough of a charge to restart, this approach is generally not recommended. Many modern cars are equipped with sophisticated battery management systems that are designed to help extend battery life.

How often should I start my car to keep the battery charged? ›

To keep your battery adequately charged, we recommend driving the vehicle once a week for at least 30 minutes, preferably at highway speeds to ensure that the battery gets the boost it needs.

How can I keep my car on without killing the battery? ›

How to Keep a Car Battery Charged When Not in Use
  1. Disable Parasitic Drains. If you're planning on parking in your garage, you can disable your vehicle's security system. ...
  2. Use a Battery Maintainer. ...
  3. Disconnect the Negative Battery Cable. ...
  4. Remove the Battery Entirely.
Aug 26, 2021

What is BMS system and how it works? ›

Building management system (BMS) also known as building automation system (BAS) refers to a computer-based control system that needs to be installed within buildings to monitor and regulate the building's electrical and mechanical equipment such as power system, lighting, and ventilation to confirm sustainability [46– ...

What is battery energy management system? ›

A battery management system (BMS) is any electronic system that manages a rechargeable battery (cell or battery pack), such as by protecting the battery from operating outside its safe operating area, monitoring its state, calculating secondary data, reporting that data, controlling its environment, authenticating it ...

What five steps are done during battery maintenance? ›

What Five Steps Are Done During Battery Maintenance?
  1. Charge the Battery. A correct way of charging exists when it comes to forklift batteries. ...
  2. Maintain Fluid Levels. The life of a forklift battery relies on optimum water levels to work at maximum capacity. ...
  3. Equalize the Battery. ...
  4. Regulate Battery Temperature. ...
  5. Clean the Unit.

What are the three important battery parameters? ›

Battery Charging and Discharging Parameters
  • Battery State of Charge (BSOC) A key parameter of a battery in use in a PV system is the battery state of charge (BSOC). ...
  • Depth of Discharge. ...
  • Daily Depth of Discharge. ...
  • Charging and Discharging Rates. ...
  • Charging and Discharging Regimes.

How do you build a battery management system? ›

Building Blocks of a BMS

A battery management system can be comprised of many functional blocks including: cutoff FETs, a fuel gauge monitor, cell voltage monitor, cell voltage balance, real-time clock (RTC), temperature monitors, and a state machine. There are many types of battery management ICs available.

Where is BMS used? ›

A building management system (BMS) is a control system that can be used to monitor and manage the mechanical, electrical and electromechanical services in a facility. Such services can include power, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, physical access control, pumping stations, elevators and lights.

What is the importance of BMS in security and safety? ›

Most importantly BMS secured and prevent possible physical and cyber threats allowing building managers to have a peaceful mind. Security – Monitor building security at entrances and exits, including CCTV, intrusion detection, motion sensors, and access doors.

What are the sensors used in BMS? ›

Types of smart building sensor:
  • Temperature sensors.
  • Humidity sensors.
  • Motion / occupancy sensors.
  • Contact sensors.
  • Gas / air quality sensors.
  • Electrical current monitoring sensors.
  • Other types of sensor.
Oct 13, 2020

How do I reset my battery meter? ›

How to calibrate your battery
  1. Charge it to 100%, and keep charging it for at least two more hours.
  2. Use your device until it shuts off due to low battery.
  3. Charge it uninterrupted to 100%.

How do you calibrate a BMS? ›

You can recalibrate the BMS accuracy and rebalance the battery cells by doing the following:
  1. Let the battery fall below 10%.
  2. Leave it there for at least an hour.
  3. Charge the battery beyond 100% — that is, charge to 100%, but keep going until the car is no longer adding any energy from the charger.
Sep 29, 2022

What causes BMS failure? ›

In the case of BMS malfunction, thermal runaway can occur due to hardware failures or firmware bugs. For example, a forgotten stop command in the balancer could continue to over-discharge a cell indefinitely. In such an event, even detecting the problem and blowing a fuse will not stop the cell discharge.

Does a BMS control charging? ›

The BMS will also control the recharging of the battery by redirecting the recovered energy (i.e., from regenerative braking) back into the battery pack (typically composed of a number of battery modules, each composed of a number of cells).

Can I bypass BMS? ›

You can bypass discharge and use the BMS for charging only.

This way your BMS doesn't need such high current protection as charging is done with a smaller current. If you wire your BMS so it is only in use when charging your e-board, and gets bypassed when the batteries are being discharged, you can get away with this.

What happens if you over discharge a lithium battery? ›

In itself, this phenomenon does not lead to any safety problems. However, it slowly destroys the cell's performance, which can also cause the battery to swell under certain circumstances. “If a battery does become deeply discharged, special care must be taken during the subsequent recharge.

Why do EV batteries need BMS? ›

A Battery Management System (BMS), which manages the electronics of a rechargeable battery, whether a cell or a battery pack, thus becomes a crucial factor in ensuring electric vehicle safety. It safeguards both the user and the battery by ensuring that the cell operates within its safe operating parameters.

How do I make my battery health 100 again? ›

  1. Make use of 'Power-saving mode' ...
  2. Restrict app usage on your Android Smartphone. ...
  3. Turn off 'location services' ...
  4. Enable 'optimized battery charging' feature. ...
  5. Use the 'Auto-brightness' feature. ...
  6. Don't use the iPhone in extreme temperatures. ...
  7. Use 'Low-power mode' ...
  8. Reduce 'Auto-lock time' on your iPhone.
Jun 23, 2021

What does *# 0228 do? ›

Another useful hidden menu is for checking the battery voltage. Enter *#0228# in to the phone dialer and you'll see the change in voltage when you charge it.

What is the code to reset battery? ›

Power the phone off and then turn it on again and then unplug the charger. Plug the charger in again and the battery at 100%, turn the phone on again and open the dialer, and type: *#9900#. Scroll down to "batterystats. bin reset" and tap.

How many amps is a BMS? ›

The most reliable BMS systems will be rated at 100 amps, despite the battery rating being declared at for instance 50AH or 80 AH or 100AH.

How do I reset my battery calibration? ›

To perform a battery calibration:
  1. Force reboot the device by holding the power button until the device reboots.
  2. Plug into supplied charger.
  3. Charge to 100% and leave on the charger for at least an additional hour after getting to 100%


1. Battery Management in Electric Vehicles
2. What is a Battery Management System?
(Lithium Battery Systems)
3. 3 Critical Functions of Battery Management Systems
4. DevCon 2020 Presentation: Battery Management
5. BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM | Components, Functions, Block diagram | Why in EV?
(Get Electric Vehicle)
6. Calculating the State of Charge of a Lithium Ion Battery System using a Battery Management System
(Stafl Systems)
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