Chondrosarcoma is a group of bone tumors that consist of cells that produce too much cartilage. According to the DelveInsight analysis, the total number of chondrosarcoma cases in 7MM was approx2331cases in 2022 and is expected to increase over the forecast period. Our estimates suggest that the United States doesthe highest incidence rate of chondrosarcomaamong seven major markets, with ~1300reported cases in 2022. Among the indicators of stage-specific conventional chondrosarcoma, localized conventional chondrosarcoma accounted for approx.75%percentage of patients, while the rest were metastatic. Regarding disease progression, the rate is quite high in patients with high-grade conventional chondrosarcoma compared to patients with low-grade conventional chondrosarcoma.
Challenges in the treatment and diagnosis of chondrosarcoma
The path to the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma can be arduous and long due to the rarity of this type of cancer. Patients can undergo numerous tests and seek expert advice before receiving a final diagnosis. When it comes to diseases like chondrosarcoma, there is no recommended procedure after the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma. The disease is difficult to treat and rare, which makes comprehensive research difficult. Relying on data from a single institution for morbidity and survival rates may not be reliable. Instead, data collection from population-based cancer registries is needed to provide accurate and representative information.
A look at the subtypes and grades of chondrosarcoma
Chondrosarcoma is a type of tumor that consists of different subtypes. These tumors can develop independently, known as primary (complementary) tumors.85%cases) or result from pre-existing benign osteochondromas or enchondromas, or secondary tumors.
Most chondrosarcomas, approx85%,they fall into the category of conventional chondrosarcomas that are known to require treatment with chemotherapy, so this is a major area of concern. As for class-specific cases, Grade I and II chondrosarcomas grow quite slowly, while grades III and IV can grow quite quickly. It is estimated that approx75-80%Of allcases of chondrosarcomathey are considered of low quality in nature. According to DelveInsight estimates, there were approx485, 584, 177 i 125cases I., II., III. or IV. degree in 2022
How do the stage and stage of the tumor shape the path of treatment for chondrosarcoma?
While chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have a limited effect on conventional chondrosarcomas, they may prove useful in rarer subtypes of this cancer, such asmesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma may be helped by chemotherapy, although success rates in the literature are inconsistent. Current chemotherapy recommendations includecisplatin and doxorubicin, extrapolated from the recommended onetreatment of osteosarcomaregimes. However The primary treatment for chondrosarcoma is surgery, with limb salvage surgery being a popular choice. Amputation is only necessary in advanced or recurrent cases. Since chemotherapy and radiation therapy are usually ineffective for most types of chondrosarcoma, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for this cancer.
What does the NCCN recommend for the treatment of chondrosarcoma?
According to ESMO clinical practice guidelines, trabectedin may be an option for the treatment of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Additionally,Dazatynib and Pazopanibshowed little effectiveness in metastatic chondrosarcoma and disseminated chondrosarcoma and are recommended by NCCN guidelines.Inhibitor IDH1such as Ivosidenib was also added astreatment option for patients with conventional or dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma with IDH1 mutation in the NCCN guidelines.
Inhibrx's INBX-109: a promising candidate for the treatment of chondrosarcoma
The fact that chondrosarcoma has many subtypes and grades has sparked interest in studying each one in depth and uncovering specific treatment options. We are aware that low-grade chondrosarcomas rarely metastasize. In contrast, high-grade chondrosarcomas, which consist of5–10%of all conventional chondrosarcomas, they are very aggressive and tend to spread to the lungs. This creates an addressable patient population for new chondrosarcoma therapies targeting patients initially diagnosed with metastatic chondrosarcoma and those whose disease is progressing. According to an analysis by DelveInsight,total size of the chondrosarcoma marketin 7MM is approx$9 millionin 2022 and is expected to increase over the forecast period (2023-2032) toCAGR from 24.8%due to increased awareness of the disease and the launch of a new therapy for the treatment of chondrosarcoma.
Administering chemotherapy to chondrosarcomas located in cartilage devoid of blood vessels is a major challenge. Injecting drugs directly into the veins does not guarantee that the drug will reach the tumor. However, by using monoclonal antibodies that stay in the body longer, the desired drug level can be reached, leading to the death of cancer cells. one of thesea cure for chondrosarcomawhich showed signs of benefit for those receiving the drugINBRX-109,which is developingInhibrx.Inhibrx pushes its luck into the conventional field of chondrosarcoma treatment.
INBRX-109is a tetravalent DR5 agonist antibody that can enhance DR5 by efficiently clustering receptors to cause cell death. The drug is currently being evaluated in a phase II clinical trial for chondrosarcoma, which may lead to approval, and the company expects to read data from this pivotal study by the second half of 2024. If the results are positive, the drug is on the road to approvaltreatment of chondrosarcoma INBRX-109could open up2025.
INBX-109is poised to gain a significant competitive advantage by creating a unique space among patients with inoperable or metastatic conventional chondrosarcoma and be the first to gain an advantage. With rapid acceptance, it is expected to gain a strong foothold in patients with first- and second-line metastases. Also, given the lack of predictable competition in these subgroups of patients, INBX-109 is not expected to peak (post-launch) in terms of revenue anytime soon until challenged by patents.
Unmet need in the market for chondrosarcoma treatment
The rarity of chondrosarcoma presents challenges to clinical research and understanding of epidemiology. Limited outcome data in locally advanced or metastatic patients highlight the need for new treatment options for chondrosarcoma. While several Phase II trials have shown promise, low enrollment and varying dose levels in Phase I trials make it difficult for them to draw conclusions. Retrospective studies are encouraged to gain more insight into the disease, and urgent efforts are needed to increase research andtreatment options for chondrosarcomaavailable for this orphan disease. In addition, the lack of epidemiological studies of chondrosarcoma makes it difficult to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies due to limited data on disease prevalence, incidence, risk factors and outcomes. Therefore, more research is needed to better understand this rare disease and improve patient diagnosis and treatment outcomes for chondrosarcoma.
Frequently asked questions
1. What is chondrosarcoma?
Chondrosarcoma is a category of bone tumors that consist of cells that produce too much cartilage. The most common type of chondrosarcoma, called conventional chondrosarcoma, normally grows very slowly. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma, myxoid chondrosarcoma, clear cell chondrosarcoma, and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma are rare subtypes of chondrosarcoma that grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body.
2. What are the symptoms of chondrosarcoma?
The symptoms of chondrosarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. In the early stages, chondrosarcoma may not cause any symptoms. As the tumor grows, symptoms of chondrosarcoma may include pain, swelling, limited range of motion, fractures, numbness or tingling, and more.
3. How is chondrosarcoma diagnosed?
Diagnosis of chondrosarcoma usually begins with a physical examination and review of the patient's medical history. During the examination, the doctor will look for any visible signs of bone or joint abnormalities, and may also feel for any lumps or masses in the affected area. Your doctor may also order blood tests to look for signs of inflammation or other abnormalities. Imaging tests are often used to diagnose chondrosarcoma. This may include X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and bone scans.
4. What are the current treatment options for chondrosarcoma?
Treatment options for chondrosarcoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The choice of treatment for chondrosarcoma depends on various factors, such as the size and location of the tumor, its stage, and the patient's overall health.
Which chondrosarcoma has the best prognosis? ›
The 5-year survival of grade I chondrosarcomas is 83%. High-grade chondrosarcoma and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma, by comparison, have an inferior prognosis due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the propensity for early metastasis . The 5-year survival of grade II and III chondrosarcomas is of 53% .How many cases of chondrosarcoma are there a year? ›
How common is CS? CS is a rare type of bone tumor and affects 1 person per 200,000 per year in the US. It is more common in adults. The rare subtypes of chondrosarcoma make up only about 10% of all CS cases.What is the chemotherapy protocol for chondrosarcoma? ›
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is an aggressive, high-grade type of chondrosarcoma. It may be treated with the following combination of chemotherapy drugs: vincristine (Oncovin), doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide (Procytox), alternating treatments with ifosfamide (Ifex) and etoposide (Vepesid, VP-16)Does chondrosarcoma respond to chemo? ›
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. It's not often used for chondrosarcoma because this type of cancer often doesn't respond to chemotherapy.What is the life expectancy of someone with chondrosarcoma? ›
Conventional chondrosarcoma is the most common form of chondrosarcoma. Approximately 60% to 70 % of people who have conventional chondrosarcoma are alive five years after diagnosis.What are the odds of surviving chondrosarcoma? ›
Recent large scale studies of all chondrosarcomas have reported 5-year average survival rates of 75.2% and 10-year average survival rates of 70%.What is the rate of metastasis for chondrosarcoma? ›
Approximately 22%–32% of patients with chondrosarcoma develop metastasis. The rate of metastasis is related to histological tumor grade. Moreover, patients with large tumors, pelvic lesions, high-grade tumors, and local recurrence have been reported to be at high risk for metastasis and poor survival.How fast does chondrosarcoma spread? ›
Most chondrosarcomas grow slowly and may not cause many signs and symptoms at first. Some rare types grow rapidly and have a high risk of spreading to other areas of the body, which can make these cancers difficult to treat.What is the risk of recurrence of chondrosarcoma? ›
One study of locally recurrent pelvic chondrosarcoma found 71% of patients have at least a second local recurrence, but only 24% of patients develop metastases .Where does chondrosarcoma metastasis to? ›
Chondrosarcoma is the second most common type of primary bone cancer in adults. A primary bone cancer is one that starts from bone cells. It's not the same as cancer that starts in another organ and then spreads to the bone. That's called metastatic cancer to the bone or bone metastasis.
What is the new chemo for sarcoma? ›
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted accelerated approval to olaratumab (Lartruvo®) for the treatment of some patients with soft tissue sarcoma.What is the best chemo for sarcoma? ›
A chemotherapy drug called doxorubicin could lower the risk of sarcoma coming back for some people after surgery. Combining doxorubicin with ifosfamide can lower the risk further but has more side effects.How bad is chondrosarcoma? ›
Chondrosarcoma has four grades, and the higher the grade, the more severe the tumor: Grade I (low grade) tumors are less likely to grow and spread than Grade II (intermediate grade) or Grade III (high grade) tumors. The fourth and most serious grade is called dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma.Can chondrosarcoma spread to the brain? ›
A mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the brain with metastasis is the extremely rare variety. Previously, it was thought that these tumors arise only in bones, but 50% of these tumors have origin other than bone such as extraskeletal sites. Extraskeletal sites can be soft tissues, muscle, brain, and spinal cord.What does chondrosarcoma pain feel like? ›
Bone pain is an uncomfortable feeling of deep pain or pressure within the bones. Along with bone pain, the most common symptoms of chondrosarcoma are redness and swelling that occur near the thigh, arm, pelvis, or knee.
A chondroma, also called exostosis or osteochondroma, is a benign bone tumor. Benign bone tumors are not sarcomas. Benign bone tumors do not spread to other tissues and organs, and are not life threatening.How does someone get chondrosarcoma? ›
What causes chondrosarcoma? The exact cause of chondrosarcoma is not known. There may be a genetic or chromosomal component that makes certain individuals more open to this type of malignancy. Chondrosarcomas have been observed as a late consequence of radiation therapy for other cancers.Why is chondrosarcoma resistant to chemotherapy? ›
There are reasons why chondrosarcomas are chemoresistant; tissue access of chemotherapeutic drugs is more difficult in chondrosarcomas than in vascularized cancers as the drugs have to diffuse over a long distance to reach tumour cells; chondrosarcomas have high expression of the multidrug resistance–associated protein ...What is the recovery for chondrosarcoma? ›
It takes a long while to recover from Chondrosarcoma. The results are not permanent; however the recovery time for the surgery is the normal one ranging from 2 to 4 weeks.What is the success rate of chondrosarcoma surgery? ›
The 5- and 10-year survival rates for our patients with pelvic chondrosarcoma were 83.1% and 74.8%, respectively; the 10-year survival rate was reported to be between 54% and 88%. Thirty-two patients underwent more than two surgeries due to complications or repeated surgery for local recurrence.
What are the prognostic factors of chondrosarcoma? ›
There are many factors affecting the prognosis of chondrosarcoma, including age, primary site, histological type, grade, tumor size, distant metastasis and treatment method.What is the most common age for chondrosarcoma? ›
Chondrosarcoma is the second most common malignant bone tumor, representing 10% to 20% of all malignant bone tumors. It is most common in adults 30 to 70 years of age and is rare in patients under 21 years of age.What can be mistaken for chondrosarcoma? ›
A metaphyseal lesion could suggest a chondromyxoid fibroma, an epiphyseal lesion a chondroblastoma or a giant cell tumour. Fibrous dysplasia or a bone infarction can be misdiagnosed as chondrosarcomas, the lack of cortical erosion or of soft-tissue mass would suggest something other than a chondrosarcoma.What is the best sarcoma center in United States? ›
Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and Mayo Clinic in Phoenix/Scottsdale, Arizona, have been recognized among the Best Hospitals for cancer by U.S. News & World Report.What is the best treatment for sarcoma in the world? ›
Small low-grade sarcomas can usually be effectively removed by surgery alone. Those that are high grade and larger than 2 inches (5 cm) are often treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy.Does anyone survive stage 4 sarcoma? ›
About 16% of sarcomas are found in a metastatic stage. The 5-year relative survival rate for people with metastatic sarcoma is 17%. Experts measure relative survival rate statistics for sarcoma every 5 years.What is the most aggressive form of sarcoma? ›
It is often more aggressive than other liposarcomas and can spread to other sites of the body such as lung and soft tissue. It has much in common with undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS).
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved a new molecularly targeted therapeutic called olaratumab (Lartruvo) for treating certain patients with soft tissue sarcoma. Olaratumab is intended to be used in combination with the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic doxorubicin.Why is sarcoma so painful? ›
Because sarcoma can develop in flexible, elastic tissues or deep spaces in the body, the tumor can often push normal tissue out of its way as it grows. Therefore, a sarcoma may grow quite large before it causes symptoms. Eventually, it may cause pain as the growing tumor begins to press against nerves and muscles.What are the symptoms of chondrosarcoma in the brain? ›
Symptoms can include a large lump or mass on a bone, pressure surrounding the mass, or severe pain. Symptoms of chondrosarcoma of the skull base are neurological, and may include headaches, as well as vision or hearing disturbances.
What are the symptoms of chondrosarcoma of the head? ›
Chondrosarcoma is a tumor that affects the cartilage cells of bone. If located at the base of the skull, the patient may experience headaches, dizziness, hearing loss, numbness, facial pain, and difficulty swallowing.What is the survival rate for chondrosarcoma of the skull base? ›
The overall survival is approximately 65% for chordomas and 80% for chondrosarcomas at 5 years and 30 and 50%, respectively, at 10 years. Chordomas are divided into the following 3 histological types: classical (conventional), chondroid, and dedifferentiated.Can chondrosarcoma spread to lungs? ›
Pulmonary metastases from hand chondrosarcomas are rare but not unknown. For higher grade chondrosarcomas of the hand, excision/ray amputation is probably a better treatment than curettage.Which bone tumor has poorest prognosis? ›
Patients with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a poor prognosis with a 5-year event-free survival of 30%. Among this group, the prognosis of patients with multifocal osteosarcoma7, 8, 9 or with axial metastases6 is the most severe.Which tumor has best prognosis? ›
Although there are no curable cancers, melanoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and breast, prostate, testicular, cervical, and thyroid cancer have some of the highest 5-year relative survival rates.What is a Grade 3 chondrosarcoma? ›
A scale of 1 to 3 is used. Grade 1 cancer cells look a lot like normal cells and tend to grow and spread slowly. Grade 3 cancer cells look very different from normal cells. They grow and spread fast. Grade 2 falls in between.Which bone tumor is the most aggressive? ›
Stage 4. This is the most advanced form of bone cancer. A stage 4 tumor will appear in more than one location and will have spread to either the lungs, lymph nodes, or other organs.What is the rarest bone tumor? ›
Chordoma. Chordoma is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the bones of the base of the skull and spine, specifically the sacrum. Roughly 300 people in the United States are diagnosed with chordoma every year.What is the most common aggressive bone tumor? ›
Multiple Myeloma, the most common primary bone cancer, is a malignant tumor of bone marrow. It affects approximately 20 people per million people each year. Most cases are seen in patients aged 50 to 70 years old.What is the hardest tumor to remove? ›
Glioblastoma often grows into the healthy brain tissue, so it might not be possible to remove all of the cancer cells. Most people have other treatments after surgery to get to the cancer cells that are left.
What are the top 3 deadliest cancers? ›
Lung and bronchus cancer is responsible for the most deaths with 127,070 people expected to die from this disease. That is nearly three times the 52,550 deaths due to colorectal cancer, which is the second most common cause of cancer death. Pancreatic cancer is the third deadliest cancer, causing 50,550 deaths.What are the toughest cancers to beat? ›
If defining "fastest-killing" cancer is based on which cancer has the worst 5-year relative survival rate, then it would be a tie between pancreatic cancer and malignant mesothelioma (a relatively rare cancer in the U.S. with about 3,000 cases a year).Where does chondrosarcoma spread to? ›
Chondrosarcoma primarily affects the cartilage cells of the femur (thighbone), arm, pelvis, or knee. Although less often, other areas (such as the ribs) may be affected.